In an increasingly globalised world, Trans-National Corporations (TNCs) wield considerable social, economic and political influence, both in the international market economy and within individual countries. The practices of TNCs can have positive or adverse effects on population health through production methods and products, shaping social determinants of health, or influencing the regulatory structures governing their activities. TNCs can contribute to health inequities if the health consequences arising from their practices have disproportionate adverse impacts on vulnerable populations or positive benefits for less vulnerable groups. Despite growing recognition of the implications for health, including oral health, arising from TNC practices, little research has sought to systematically assess the oral health and/or oral health equity impacts of TNCs. In the four papers that follow, we contribute to the discourse around oral health-related inequalities through the lens of power, human agency and TNCs.