March 2011

Volume 28, Issue 1

Assessment and comparison of periodontal status among young smokers and nonsmokers of Bangalore, India - a cross sectional study.

Authors: C.S. Bhagyajyothi K. Pushpanjali
doi: 10.1922/CDH_2529Bhagyajyothi06


Objectives: To compare the periodontal status among young smokers and nonsmokers and to assess the influence of frequency and duration of smoking on the periodontal status. Basic Research Design: A cross sectional study. Participants: The study was conducted among 1,081 male employees (aged between 20-35 years) working in Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), a factory located in Bangalore, India. Setting: Two medical centers (FMC-North and FMC-South) situated within the factory premises. Method: A specially designed form was used for collecting the information on socio-demographic factors, oral hygiene practices, smoking habits including the frequency and duration of smoking in addition to recording community periodontal index (CPI index) together with its loss of attachment (LA) component. Independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), post hoc test (Bonferroni), chi square test and logistic regression analysis were carried out. Main Outcome Measures: CPI scores and LA codes. Results: Mean number of sextants per person with both periodontal pockets and loss of attachment measuring 4 mm or more was significantly higher (p<0.001) in smokers when compared to nonsmokers. Increase in the extent and severity of periodontitis was evident with an increase in the frequency and duration of cigarette smoking. Smokers were eight times more at risk of periodontal pockets (C.I: 5.79-10.68) and five times more at risk for loss of attachment (C.I: 3.79 -6.52) when compared to nonsmokers (p<0.001). Conclusions: Smoking is a risk factor strongly associated with periodontal disease among this young population of male employees working in BEL factory located in Bangalore. The extent and severity of the periodontitis was related to the amount of cigarettes smoked and the duration of the habit. Key words: Periodontitis, smoking, young adults

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