December 2022

Volume 39, Issue 4

Who are the 10%? Characteristics of the populations and communities receiving fluoridated water in England

Authors: Blessing Nyakutsikwa Thomas Allen Tanya Walsh Iain Pretty Stephen Birch Martin Tickle Deborah Moore
doi: 10.1922/CDH_00092Nyakutsikwa07


Objectives: In England, around 10% of the population receive optimally fluoridated water. This coverage has evolved through a combination of historical local decision-making and natural geography, rather than being strategically targeted at the national level. It is important to understand if the current distribution is equitable according to indicators of oral health need and to identify any population-level differences in socio-demographic characteristics that could introduce bias to studies evaluating the effectiveness of water fluoridation. Basic research design: Descriptive analysis comparing the census characteristics of populations that received optimally fluoridated (=/> 0.7 mg F/L) and non-fluoridated water (<0.7 mg F/L) between 2009 and 2020. Results: Populations receiving fluoridated water between 20092020 were on average slightly younger, more urban, more deprived, with lower education levels, higher unemployment and lower car and home ownership than the populations who received non-fluoridated water. They are more ethnically diverse, with a higher proportion of Asian ethnicity and a lower proportion of White ethnicity, compared to the non-fluoridated population. Discussion: This descriptive analysis provides evidence that water fluoridation coverage within England is targeted reasonably equitably in relation to population-level indicators of need. It also confirms the need to consider the impact of underlying differences in age, deprivation, rurality, and ethnicity when evaluating the impact of water fluoridation on health outcomes in England. Keywords: Oral health, Public health, Fluoridation


Other articles in this issue

Article Pages Access
CDH Board 2022 217-217 Download
Editorial: Community Dental Health opens its archive of papers to all 218-218 Download
Dental Public Health in Action: The Greater Manchester Child Friendly Dental Practice Scheme: Using a Transformational Commissioning Approach to Align Paediatric Dental Service Provision with Childhoo 219-224 Download
The effect of the national scaling program on tooth loss: a claim-based matched large cohort study in Korea 225-230 £10 single article
The effects of modifiable maternal pregnancy exposures on offspring molar-incisor hypomineralisation: A negative control study 231-239 £10 single article
Impact of diseases of the hard tissues of teeth on oral healthrelated quality of life of schoolchildren in area with a high concentration of fluoride in drinking water 240-246 £10 single article
Who are the 10%? Characteristics of the populations and communities receiving fluoridated water in England 247-253 Download
A Health Inequalities Impact Assessment of the surveillance of COVID-19 in asymptomatic patients attending dental settings in Scotland 254-259 Download
The Impact of Oral Health Training on the Early Year’s Workforce Knowledge, Skills and Behaviours in Delivering Oral Health Advice: A Systematic Review 260-266 £10 single article
Factors associated with the municipal provision of orthodontics in the Brazilian Unified Health System 267-274 £10 single article
Antibiotic use by dentists in Germany: a review of prescriptions, pathogens, antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic stewardship strategies 275-281 Download


Online (Single user only)
Institution Online (IP address validation)

Back issues may be obtained from the publisher

Consider recommending subscription to your institution's library

You can view Open Access papers without a subscription.