March 2017

Volume 34, Issue 1

Urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after intake of fluoridated milk and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste

Authors: M. Norman S. Twetman A. Hultgren Talvilahti E. Granström C. Stecksén-Blicks
doi: 10.1922/CDH_3943Norman05


Objective: To assess the urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after drinking fluoridated milk with 0.185 mg F and 0.375 mg F and to study the impact of use of fluoride toothpaste. Basic research design: Double-blind cross-over study. Participants: Nine healthy children, 2.5-4.5 years of age. Intervention: In a randomized order, participants drank 1.5 dl milk once daily for 7 days with no fluoride added (control), 0.185 mg fluoride added and 0.375 mg fluoride added. The experiment was performed twice with (Part I) and without (Part II) parental tooth brushing with 1,000 ppm fluoride toothpaste. The fluoride content in the piped drinking water was 0.5 mg F/L. Main outcome measure: Urinary fluoride excretion. Results: The 24-hour urinary fluoride excretion/kg body weight varied from 0.014 mg F for the placebo intervention and non-fluoride toothpaste to 0.027 mg F for the 0.375 mg intervention with use of 1,000 ppm fluoride toothpaste. The difference compared with the placebo intervention was not statistically significant for any of the interventions when fluoride toothpaste was used (p>0.05) while it was statistically significantly different when non-fluoride toothpaste was used (p<0.05). Conclusions: All sources of fluoride must be considered when designing community programs. With 0.5 mg F/L in the drinking water and daily use of fluoride toothpaste, most children had a fluoride intake optimal for dental health. In this setting, additional intake of fluoride milk was within safe limits up to 0.185 mg/day while conclusions about the safety of 0.375 mg/day were uncertain. Key words: caries prevention, children, fluoride excretion, fluoride toothpaste, milk fluoridation, Sweden

£10 single article

Other articles in this issue

Article Pages Access
Editorial 3-3 £10 single article
The oral health of people with learning disabilities - a user-friendly questionnaire survey 4-7 £10 single article
Sugar before bed: a simple dietary risk factor for caries experience 8-13 Download
Measuring oral health impact among care home residents in Wales 14-18 Download
Access to urgent dental care: a scoping review 19-26 £10 single article
Urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after intake of fluoridated milk and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste 27-31 £10 single article
Directly observed daily mouth care provided to care home residents in one area of Kent, UK 32-36 Download
Association between sense of coherence and oral health-related quality of life among toddlers 37-40 £10 single article
Tobacco use in late adolescence among rural Sri Lankans 41-45 £10 single article
Dental caries experience among Albanian pre-school children: a national survey 46-49 £10 single article
A model for oral health gradients in children: using structural equation modeling 50-55 £10 single article
Using the simplified case mix tool (sCMT) to identify cost in special care dental services to support commissioning 56-59 £10 single article
Oral health and oral health behaviours of five-year-old children in the Charedi Orthodox Jewish Community in North London, UK 60-64 £10 single article


Online (Single user only)
Print & Online (Single user only)
Institution Online (IP address validation)

Back issues may be obtained from the publisher

Consider recommending subscription to your institution's library

You can view Open Access papers without a subscription.