March 2012

Volume 29, Issue 1

Relationship of Periodontal Disease to Pre-term Low Birth Weight Infants in a Selected Population - A Prospective Study.

Authors: T.B. Taiyeb Ali K. Zainal Abidin
doi: 10.1922/CDH_2639TaiyebAli06

Abstract

Objective: To assess effect of periodontal status of antenatal mothers on pregnancy outcomes in a selected population in Malaysia. Design: Prospective cohort study on a multi-ethnic convenient sample. Methods: 73 healthy pregnant women between 28 to 36 gestation weeks attending 5 ante-natal centres were recruited. Both Interviewer-administered Questionnaire and Periodontal examination, which included Plaque index, Gingival index, Papillary Bleeding index, probing pocket depth and attachment loss were conducted. Outcomes: Pregnancy outcome data which included gestational age at delivery, birth weight of newborn and delivery complications were collected after delivery. Results: Study sample of 73 mothers was approximately in 1:3 case:control ratio (21.9% & 78.1% respectively). Case was defined as those with preterm(PT) deliveries and low birth weight(LBW) infants whereas control was otherwise. 37 pregnant women were diagnosed with periodontal disease (minimum 2 teeth with ≥5mm periodontal pockets and ≥3mm attachment loss) and 36 without periodontal disease (PD). Of those with PD, 4 (10.8%) had PT delivery and 3 (8.1%) had LBW infants. None of the PD variable means or PD status associated significantly with either of the two groups (P>0.05). Logistic regression analysis to test the possible predictor (demographic and clinical) for PT or LBW status indicated only Plaque Index mean as a significant predictor (P<0.03). Conclusions: In this study population, PD was not shown to be a risk factor for PT delivery or LBW infant. Only mean Plaque Index was associated with PT deliveries and LBW infants. Keywords: periodontal disease, pregnancy outcomes, prospective study, Malaysia.

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